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Glossary posts

Academic Freedom

This is freedom for individuals within the academy, rather than the autonomy of academic institutions within society, although the two are linked. While the precise meaning and boundaries of the term are contested, it describes an expectation that individual academics will be able freely to determine a range of matters in relation to teaching, research, and self-governance,

By |2020-05-31T22:08:04+03:00May 31st, 2020|Categories: Glossary Posts, Χωρίς κατηγορία|Tags: |0 Comments

Accountability

Accountability applies to both individuals and institutions. It means taking responsibility for your actions rather than trying to shift responsibility (or blame) elsewhere. This involves being able to explain the reasons behind your actions when necessary, and being prepared to discuss your actions and their consequences. It implies a willingness to accept and act

By |2020-05-31T22:06:33+03:00May 31st, 2020|Categories: Glossary Posts, Χωρίς κατηγορία|Tags: |0 Comments

Acknowledge (and failure to)

Give appropriate credit to someone for their ideas or effort that have contributed to a project (or fail to do so). [See also Authorship.] ‘Appropriate credit’ varies by discipline. For example, in psychology, people who have contributed to a research project may be listed as authors of an article about the findings even if

By |2020-05-31T22:04:40+03:00May 31st, 2020|Categories: Glossary Posts, Χωρίς κατηγορία|Tags: |0 Comments

Aftercare

Researchers have responsibilities after a project is completed (Kara 2018). It is not easy to define the end of a research project: is it when the funding has all been spent, or when the last meeting has been held, or the last output published? Whenever the end point is, researchers continue to be responsible

By |2020-05-31T22:01:57+03:00May 31st, 2020|Categories: Glossary Posts, Χωρίς κατηγορία|Tags: |0 Comments

Anonymity

Granting to participants or others the right to have their name and other identifying details withheld from third parties. Committees or boards that grant ethics approval usually require researchers to maintain participants’ anonymity. However, this is not always ethical in itself. For example, Kristen Perry (2011), who worked with Sudanese refugees in America, found

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Application (of findings)

Putting research findings to use in professional or other practice or public policy. This is generally regarded as ethical because it maximises use of the resources expended on conducting the research. These resources are both those of the funders and those of the participants, whether in time, materials or goodwill. However, researchers should also

By |2020-05-31T21:57:14+03:00May 31st, 2020|Categories: Glossary Posts, Χωρίς κατηγορία|Tags: |0 Comments

Audit

A type of research that aims to reveal the efficiency, effectiveness or quality of an institution, community, or other entity by examining its use of resources and assets relative to costs and outputs. Although this stance has been contested (Gawande 2007), audit is generally not thought to require ethics regulation because it is being conducted

By |2020-05-31T21:47:11+03:00May 31st, 2020|Categories: Glossary Posts, Χωρίς κατηγορία|Tags: |0 Comments

Autonomy

“The capacity of a person to govern him or herself, on the basis of reasoned decisions and free from controlling influences by others. Autonomy is widely held to involve the capacity for reason and understanding, a degree of self-control, and freedom from coercion and manipulation” (Hughes et al 2010) As a principle, autonomy is, in

By |2020-05-31T21:43:29+03:00May 31st, 2020|Categories: Glossary Posts, Χωρίς κατηγορία|Tags: |0 Comments

Axiology

The branch of philosophy that includes ethics. Axiology ‘refers to the analysis of values to better understand their meanings, characteristics, their purpose, their acceptance as true knowledge, and their influence on people’s daily experiences. It is the branch of philosophy that deals with the nature of ethics, aesthetics, and religion, where religion encompasses spirituality

By |2020-05-31T21:39:36+03:00May 31st, 2020|Categories: Glossary Posts, Χωρίς κατηγορία|Tags: |0 Comments

Beneficence

Acting to create benefit. Under the influence of biomedical research models, this is generally seen as benefit for participants. However, creating benefit is not straightforward. There is almost always some risk of harm to research participants, however hard researchers may work to minimise or mitigate that risk. Research participation that does not benefit an

By |2020-05-31T21:37:16+03:00May 31st, 2020|Categories: Glossary Posts, Χωρίς κατηγορία|Tags: |0 Comments