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So far prores has created 92 blog entries.

Axiology

The branch of philosophy that includes ethics. Axiology ‘refers to the analysis of values to better understand their meanings, characteristics, their purpose, their acceptance as true knowledge, and their influence on people’s daily experiences. It is the branch of philosophy that deals with the nature of ethics, aesthetics, and religion, where religion encompasses spirituality

By |2020-05-31T21:39:36+03:00May 31st, 2020|Categories: Glossary Posts, Χωρίς κατηγορία|Tags: |0 Comments

Beneficence

Acting to create benefit. Under the influence of biomedical research models, this is generally seen as benefit for participants. However, creating benefit is not straightforward. There is almost always some risk of harm to research participants, however hard researchers may work to minimise or mitigate that risk. Research participation that does not benefit an

By |2020-05-31T21:37:16+03:00May 31st, 2020|Categories: Glossary Posts, Χωρίς κατηγορία|Tags: |0 Comments

Bias

“A bias is a tendency, inclination, or prejudice toward or against something or someone.”( Psychology Today 2019) Biases can be positive, such as a bias towards caring for others or away from crime. However, biases tend to be based on assumptions rather than evidence or logical thought. This means that bias can lead to

By |2020-05-31T21:35:02+03:00May 31st, 2020|Categories: Glossary Posts, Χωρίς κατηγορία|Tags: |0 Comments

Bullying

Bullying is generally defined for research purposes as the frequent, persistent and hostile harassment or intimidation of someone less powerful (Samnani and Singh 2012). However, definitions of bullying can vary between cultures. (Boynton 2017). Bullying is prevalent in workplaces, including educational institutions at all levels (Boynton 2017): almost 95% of employees report some experience

By |2020-05-31T21:33:01+03:00May 31st, 2020|Categories: Glossary Posts, Χωρίς κατηγορία|Tags: |0 Comments

Care

Having concern for someone’s wellbeing; expressing that concern; taking steps to help someone maintain or improve their wellbeing. In relation to ethics, the ‘ethics of care’ refers to making sure all participants and other stakeholders are cared for during the research process and beyond. This is often set in opposition to ethics of justice,

By |2020-05-31T21:30:24+03:00May 31st, 2020|Categories: Glossary Posts, Χωρίς κατηγορία|Tags: |0 Comments

Cognitive bias

A particular kind of Bias denoting automatic and replicable errors in thinking (Kara 2018). Over 100 kinds of cognitive bias have been defined, some of which are relevant to researchers. Examples include: sameness error, i.e. thinking things are the same (e.g. for women and for men) when they’re not (Chilisa 2012); Berkson’s paradox, i.e.

By |2020-05-31T21:28:37+03:00May 31st, 2020|Categories: Glossary Posts, Χωρίς κατηγορία|Tags: |0 Comments

Collaboration

A unifying activity of working with another or others to produce something together for mutual and wider benefit in which collaborators are united in a common enterprise and use a common identity to achieve shared goals. Collaboration among researchers usually involves joint conceptualisation of aims and methods, management and communication, accountability, outcomes and authorship. These

By |2020-05-31T21:26:27+03:00May 31st, 2020|Categories: Glossary Posts, Χωρίς κατηγορία|Tags: |0 Comments

Compassion

Often referred to as a virtue, a deep awareness of, concern for and sensitivity to the suffering or misfortune of another or others, and a motivation to help them. The suffering or misfortune is of a kind that can be readily understood and identified by the person who experiences compassion (Strauss et al. 2016). Beyond

By |2020-05-31T21:24:58+03:00May 31st, 2020|Categories: Glossary Posts, Χωρίς κατηγορία|Tags: |0 Comments

Conflict of interest

Conflicts of interests occur when personal, financial, political and academic concerns co-exist and the potential exists for one interest to be illegitimately favoured over another that has equal or even greater legitimacy, in a way that might make other reasonable people feel misled or deceived. Conflicts of interest reside in a situation not in

By |2020-05-31T21:22:46+03:00May 31st, 2020|Categories: Glossary Posts, Χωρίς κατηγορία|Tags: |0 Comments

Confidentiality

A legal and ethical obligation imposed on the recipient of information provided by another person (the provider) not to use that information for any purpose other than that for which the information was provided. The obligation can arise from a relationship or from a contract and applies to all information that is provided and

By |2020-05-31T21:19:55+03:00May 31st, 2020|Categories: Glossary Posts, Χωρίς κατηγορία|Tags: |0 Comments