A lack of hidden agendas and conditions associated with some action, accompanied by the open availability of all the information required for Collaboration, Cooperation, and collective decision making. Agreements, dealings, practices, and transactions are open to all for verification. The implication of transparency is that every action should be scrupulous enough to bear public scrutiny. This includes clarity about the rules and reasons behind regulatory measures. In practice, transparency may need to be balanced against Confidentiality and Stigmatization to protect research participants and their legitimate Privacy and commercial interests.