Self-plagiarism occurs when authors ‘reuse their own previously disseminated content and pass it off as a “new” product without letting the reader know that this material has appeared previously’ (Roig, 2013). Self-plagiarism may involve republishing a paper without acknowledgement, dividing one study into several redundant publications, or recycling previously written text without appropriate citation. Self-plagiarism can pose problems for meta-analyses as one study may exercise disproportionate influence if it is counted multiply (particularly if authors disguise the self-plagiarism); it may also infringe publishers’ copyright. In some disciplines, material (for example code in information technology, images in visual design) may be reused or repurposed without being understood as breach of integrity. A degree of self-plagiarism may also be justified where publications from interdisciplinary or multidisciplinary projects are being disseminated to different audiences (see also Duplicate and redundant publication: Plagiarism).