Safety is the effort to mitigate or manage Risk, wherever it may arise. It involves measures to protect the health, well-being and rights of researchers, research participants, particular communities and the wider society. The interests of these groups may be in conflict. There will often be a trade-off between risk and safety: being averse to risk may mean that important knowledge is not acquired while being averse to safety may result in harm to one or more parties to the research. Some aspects of safety may be the subject of legal or regulatory obligations on those who employ researchers, regardless of the choices or preferences of individual researchers.