Definitions of integrity vary across countries, institutions and disciplines. The choice can reflect whether emphasis is placed on detection and punishment or on education and culture. The dominant position in many jurisdictions dwells on misconduct; where the definition has legal status (as in the United States) and is meant to hold researchers and institutions accountable, the acts and degree of intention associated with misconduct may be tightly demarcated. Where definitions are intended to promote broader values, the field may be conceived more broadly. ALLEA’s European Code of Conduct for Research Integrity (All European Academies 2017) refers to reliability, Honesty, Respect and Accountability. The authors of the influential Singapore Statement on Research Integrity (WCRI 2010) proposed fundamental principles relating to Honesty, Accountability, professional courtesy and fairness, and good stewardship of research, as well as 14 professional responsibilities intended to transcend legitimate national and disciplinary differences.