An approach to ethics in biomedicine associated particularly with the US philosophers Tom Beauchamp and James Childress (2013). It argues that ethical judgements can be made by reference to four principles: Autonomy; Beneficence; Non-maleficence; and Justice. While these principles can be applied more widely (e.g Murphy and Dingwall 2001), there has been concern that they function too much like a checklist and, in particular, that their US origins mean that Autonomy tends to trump Justice. (see also Autonomy; Beneficence; Maleficence; Non-maleficence; Justice).