This is linked to the idea of Beneficence in Principlism. It is a way of recognizing that it may be very difficult to demonstrate that research will actually yield a direct benefit to specific participants. The benefit may come to a different group or at a future and unknowable time, if at all. However, it may be impossible to establish that without actually doing the research in the first place. Non-maleficence, then, asserts that researchers can, at the very least, be expected to minimize risks of harm or discomfort to participants (See also Harm; Maleficence).