Some literature points to structural causes for research misconduct. In this explanation, fabrication, falsification and plagiarism become shortcuts to meeting unrealistic workloads or expectations. Other commentators point to moral failings, including indolence or laziness that might grow from frustration or boredom (Macfarlane, 2009). It may be hard to distinguish moral failings from lack of engagement due to poor design or management that leaves researchers indifferent to the process and outcome of the project (Roth 1966).