The European Code of Conduct for Research Integrity (All European Academies 2017) states that research should ideally develop ‘independently of pressure from commissioning parties and from ideological, economic or political interests’. For research to be independent, decisions about research questions, methodologies, analyses, results, conclusions and dissemination must not be influenced by the views of funders (public or private) or host institutions. The ability to assert independence may depend on the existence of a diversity of funding sources, collaborators, institutional hosts, sources of data, methodological and theoretical approaches. Inevitably, the degree of independence of research falls along a continuum. This reflects the terms on which the research is conducted rather than the source of funding. It should not be assumed that public or NGO funding is necessarily independent and corporate or defence-related funding is necessarily compromised. Each case must be considered on its own merits. (see also Conflict of Interest).