The European Code of Conduct for Research Integrity (All European Academies 2017) identifies honesty ‘in developing, undertaking, reviewing, reporting and communicating research in a transparent, fair, full and unbiased way’ as one of the fundamental principles that underpins research integrity. The original version of the Code (All European Academies 2017) pointed to the need for honesty in ‘presenting research goals and intentions’, and in making ‘justifiable claims with respect to possible applications of research results’. Research integrity codes also place responsibility on institutions to ensure that all participants in misconduct investigations act honestly. Honesty may also relate to the use of any financial or other organizational resources granted, contracted or allocated to a research project for the benefit of that project rather than for any direct personal gain.