Binding and non-binding international developments in law relating to Indigenous rights led to the International Labour Organization’s (1989) Convention concerning Indigenous and Tribal Peoples in Independent Countries and the United Nations (2007) Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples. These require that, in situations such as the extraction of natural resources from, or construction on, Indigenous lands, the free, prior and informed consent (FPIC) of Indigenous peoples must be sought. The UN Permanent Forum on Indigenous Issues (United Nations 2002) explained FPIC as consent: involving no coercion, intimidation or manipulation; being sought sufficiently in advance of any authorization or commencement of activities and respecting time requirements of indigenous consultation/consensus processes; grounded in information being provided that covers the nature, size, pace, reversibility, scope, purpose, duration, location, impact, personnel involved and procedures of any proposed project or activity; and based on consultation and participation. Some countries (Bolivia, Colombia, Ecuador and Peru), have legislated or regulated to require that the right of Indigenous peoples to offer FPIC be respected in a range of matters. In relation to research, this is reflected in national guidance for health-related research in Philippines and Taiwan.