Publishing two or more papers that share exactly the same hypothesis or question, data, discussion and conclusions, or present little or no new material (see also Self-plagiarism).

In the social sciences, it may be appropriate to publish similar materials in journals with different readerships so that findings receive appropriate dissemination (see also Dissemination). This is particularly important when social scientists are working within interdisciplinary or multidisciplinary teams, seeking to reach professional audiences through publication in professional journals, or are communicating with a new audience through another language. Such duplication should be acknowledged through relevant self-citation (see Self-citation).