A citizen’s fair treatment in conformity with the principles. rules and processes of a democratic state’s legal system, including the right to a hearing before administrative action, the right of access to essential facts; the right to legal advice, the duty of administrative decision-makers to give reasons for decisions and to indicate the possibilities for legal challenge to decisions.

More narrowly, the course of formal proceedings (such as legal proceedings) that is carried out regularly and in accordance with established rules and principles, the judicial requirement that enacted laws may not contain provisions that result in the unfair, arbitrary, or unreasonable treatment of an individual.

In research, due process can refer to following the principles of fair treatment in the processes of application and decision-making for research grants, in the processes of obtaining clearance for projects from Research Ethics Committees or similar bodies, or in the processes for identifying and investigating research misconduct.