The acts and processes of distributing and sharing widely results, outcomes, findings and information gained through research, in order to contribute to knowledge or practice or to serve a public good. This may, but need not necessarily, take the form of Open Access channels, depending upon the nature of the output and the relevant intellectual property rights of its creators. Dissemination may take the form of publication in peer-reviewed journals or books, conference presentations, commissioned reviews for public bodies, blogging or social media, public lectures or dialogues, or creative works in accordance with the policies, culture and traditions of the research discipline and any other relevant stakeholders. Risks to individuals, groups or populations from dissemination of research outcomes could justify withholding, postponing or limiting dissemination. These must be weighed against the public benefit of dissemination.