A particular kind of Bias denoting automatic and replicable errors in thinking (Kara 2018). Over 100 kinds of cognitive bias have been defined, some of which are relevant to researchers. Examples include: sameness error, i.e. thinking things are the same (e.g. for women and for men) when they’re not (Chilisa 2012); Berkson’s paradox, i.e. two values appear to have a positive correlation when in fact they are negatively correlated; belief bias, i.e. giving more credence to one’s personal beliefs than to facts, data, or findings. Cognitive biases can be counteracted by Debiasing.