Acting to create benefit. Under the influence of biomedical research models, this is generally seen as benefit for participants. However, creating benefit is not straightforward. There is almost always some risk of harm to research participants, however hard researchers may work to minimise or mitigate that risk. Research participation that does not benefit an individual may nevertheless benefit their group, community or society through its findings and learning or knowledge generated from them. Researchers must assess the potential for beneficence to individual participants and other stakeholders, to their communities, and to wider societies and cultures. (University of Wollongong 2011) (see also Principlism)