In ethical thinking, value goes beyond the economic calculations that are often used to produce a single metric in order to evaluate the likely costs and benefits of actions for individuals and organizations, whether as the one acting or being acted upon. The principle of human Dignity implies that all human beings and social institutions have an intrinsic value and potential to make contributions that are as much spiritual, moral or intellectual as they might be material. This implies that they cannot be treated simply as means to some research goal but are entitled to a degree of respect as a matter of right.